Australia’s agricultural sector stands as a vital pillar of the country’s economy and plays a pivotal role in global food production. Boasting vast expanses of fertile land, diverse climates, and a commitment to innovation, Australian agriculture consistently yields an array of high-quality products, ranging from grains, livestock, and dairy to fruits, vegetables, and wine. The sector is characterised by modern farming practices, technological advancements, and sustainable initiatives that prioritise the preservation of the country’s unique ecosystems. With a strong emphasis on export-oriented production, Australia’s agribusiness not only ensures a steady supply of nutritious food for its own population but also contributes significantly to international markets, cementing its position as a global agricultural powerhouse.

A Comprehensive Look at Australian Agriculture

In this blog, we have outlined the statistical overview of the country’s agricultural sector to highlight key information.

Significance of Australian Agriculture

Agriculture holds a prominent position, both in terms of land utilisation and economic contributions. Specifically,

  • It encompasses 55% of the country’s total land use, totalling 427 million hectares, excluding timber production as of December 2020.
  • Agriculture further represents a substantial 24% of water extractions, amounting to 2,809 gigalitres allocated for agricultural purposes during the 2020–21 period.
  • From an economic perspective, it plays a pivotal role, accounting for 11.6% of goods and services exports in the fiscal year 2021–22.
  • Moreover, in the same timeframe, it contributed significantly, constituting 2.4% of the nation’s value-added (GDP) and providing employment for 2.5% of the workforce.

The variety of agricultural practices in Australia is closely connected to factors such as climate, the availability of water resources, soil characteristics, and the proximity to marketplaces. Livestock grazing is a widespread agricultural activity that spans across the nation, covering the majority of its geographic regions. Conversely, the cultivation of crops and horticultural activities tend to cluster in regions nearer to the coastal areas.

Agriculture occupies more than half of Australia’s land, underscoring the critical importance of sustainable land management practices for both agricultural enterprises and the broader public. Numerous sustainable land management strategies have become standard procedures among Australian farmers, as highlighted by Coelli in 2021. For instance:

  • A significant proportion of broadacre cropping farms have adopted practices such as stubble retention (implemented on 85% of farms), reduced tillage techniques (utilised by 68% of farms), and the optimisation of pesticide and fertiliser usage, leading to decreased reliance on these inputs (implemented on 65% of farms).
  • Livestock farms, likewise, are increasingly employing various grazing management systems, including cell, trip, or rotational grazing (applied by 61% of farms). Additionally, a substantial number of these farms have established long-term groundcover requirements to ensure sustainable land management practices (adopted by 61% of farms).

Cultivated Area

As of 2023, Australia boasts a vast cultivated agricultural area that contributes significantly to its agricultural production. The total cultivated area in the country stands at approximately 385 million hectares, reaffirming its position as a global agricultural powerhouse.

Main Crops and Relative Areas

  • Wheat: Wheat is one of Australia’s major crops, occupying around 13 million hectares of land. The country consistently ranks among the world’s top wheat producers, exporting large quantities to international markets.
  • Barley: Barley is another staple crop, covering an estimated 4.5 million hectares. Australia’s high-quality barley finds its way into various products, from brewing to animal feed.
  • Canola: Canola cultivation has been steadily increasing, with around 3.2 million hectares dedicated to this oilseed crop. Canola oil is a valuable commodity, both domestically and for export.
  • Cotton: Cotton farming has expanded, with approximately 600,000 hectares under cultivation. Australian cotton production is highly demand in worldwide, particularly in the textile industry.
  • Sugarcane: Sugarcane farming continues to thrive, with roughly 370,000 hectares. Sugar production is a crucial sector within the country’s agriculture industry.

Irrigated Areas and Greenhouse Crops

Australia’s extensive irrigation infrastructure plays a vital role in ensuring consistent crop yields. In 2023, over 2 million hectares of land will be irrigated, allowing for the production of various crops such as fruits, vegetables, and rice. Greenhouse cultivation has also gained momentum, especially for high-value crops like tomatoes and capsicums, which are grown year-round in controlled environments.

Number of Farms Divided by Surface Area

Australia’s agricultural landscape is diverse, encompassing a wide range of farm land sizes and types. In 2023, there are approximately 135,000 farms across the country, with an average farm size of around 2,850 hectares. This distribution reflects the adaptability of Australian agriculture, catering to both large-scale commercial operations and smaller family farms.

Livestock Sector

The livestock sector continues to be a vital component of Australia’s agriculture. In 2023, the country maintains a robust livestock industry, with the following key statistics:

  • Cattle: Australia is home to around 28 million cattle, including beef and dairy breeds. Beef production remains a significant contributor to the nation’s agricultural output.
  • Sheep: The sheep industry remains prominent, with an estimated 75 million sheep in the country. Wool and lamb production are essential aspects of this sector.
  • Poultry: Poultry farming, including chickens and turkeys, is on the rise, with over 500 million birds raised annually. Poultry products are staples in the Australian diet.
  • Dairy: The dairy sector thrives, with over 1.5 million dairy cows. Australia produces a variety of dairy products, including milk, cheese, and yoghurt.


Australia’s agriculture is a testament to the nation’s resilience and innovation. With vast cultivated areas, diverse crop production, a wide range of farm sizes, and a thriving livestock sector, Australia continues to be a global agricultural leader. The country’s ability to adapt to changing conditions and market demands ensures a prosperous future for its agriculture industry.

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